Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross-sections and fragment yields in carbon beams using the SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo code. Comparison with experiments.

TitleEvaluation of nuclear reaction cross-sections and fragment yields in carbon beams using the SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo code. Comparison with experiments.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsHultqvist M, Lazzeroni M, Botvina A, Gudowska I, Sobolevsky N, Brahme A
JournalPhys Med Biol
Volume57
Issue13
Pagination4369-85
Date Published2012 Jul 7
ISSN1361-6560
KeywordsCarbon, Monte Carlo Method, Nuclear Energy
Abstract

In light ion therapy, the knowledge of the spectra of both primary and secondary particles in the target volume is needed in order to accurately describe the treatment. The transport of ions in matter is complex and comprises both atomic and nuclear processes involving primary and secondary ions produced in the cascade of events. One of the critical issues in the simulation of ion transport is the modeling of inelastic nuclear reaction processes, in which projectile nuclei interact with target nuclei and give rise to nuclear fragments. In the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT, inelastic nuclear reactions are described by the Many Stage Dynamical Model (MSDM), which includes models for the different stages of the interaction process. In this work, the capability of SHIELD-HIT to simulate the nuclear fragmentation of carbon ions in tissue-like materials was studied. The value of the parameter κ, which determines the so-called freeze-out volume in the Fermi break-up stage of the nuclear interaction process, was adjusted in order to achieve better agreement with experimental data. In this paper, results are shown both with the default value κ = 1 and the modified value κ = 10 which resulted in the best overall agreement. Comparisons with published experimental data were made in terms of total and partial charge-changing cross-sections generated by the MSDM, as well as integral and differential fragment yields simulated by SHIELD-HIT in intermediate and thick water targets irradiated with a beam of 400 MeV u(-1) (12)C ions. Better agreement with the experimental data was in general obtained with the modified parameter value (κ = 10), both on the level of partial charge-changing cross-sections and fragment yields.

DOI10.1088/0031-9155/57/13/4369
Alternate JournalPhys Med Biol
PubMed ID22705925

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